The article presents a methodology for assessing landscape diversity, which allows to obtain a comprehensive numerical characteristic of the geographical environment, integrating the properties of its stability, which determines the characteristics of economic use. The identification and analysis of the landscape diversity of natural-territorial complexes is an urgent task that is in the center of attention of ecological and geographical research. On the basis of digital landscape maps, the results of experimental studies of system relationships of functioning of natural-social-production systems and structural-genetic landscape studies for the first time landscape diversity of the central part of the landscape of the Volga River delta was made. In this paper, we analyzed a number of basic landscape metrics used in assessing landscape diversity for the territory of the central part of the landscape of the Volga River Delta. Among them: the average area of landscape sections, the index of landscape fragmentation, the index of landscape complexity, the coefficient of landscape fragmentation, the index of landscape mosaic, the index of relative wealth, the Menninik index. To create schemes of landscape diversity, the method of nets in the form of hexagons, which is hardly used in domestic landscape mapping, was tested. The study and assessment of the landscape diversity of the indigenous tracts of the central part of the Volga River Delta proves that such a study makes it possible to choose the right decisions when organizing the territory. It takes on leading significance in the justification of economic activity and is a necessary component of design. Studies have shown that the largest number of undisturbed natural territorial complexes is found in areas with a high degree of landscape diversity. Many of them territorially coincide or are close to sites with the status of specially protected natural areas.