The mathematical description of procedures for equalization and normalization of luminance histograms of digital aerospace images are presented. The procedures mentioned are used to modify histograms of satellite images with high spatial resolution of some homogeneous underlying surfaces. Numerical values of the main brightness sample moments of the initial and transforming images are compared. The most achievable value of brightness contrast by means of the procedure of the histogram equalization is found. application of normal histograms to distinction of nature landscapes types is shown. The way of correction of initial image which allows meeting the criterion of consent between resultant histogram and theoretical probability distribution density is offered.