The article describes different methods of detection of contaminants in soil on the studied territories. The relevance of the work is premised on the fact that in recent years the processes of soil degradation, reduction of its fertility, increased pollution processes have been revealed. These cause problems in installing of a unified cadastral system of land assessment of the Russian Federation. Importance of the study of substances-soil pollutants and methods of soil pollution control go on a premise that the soil cover is an important component of the biosphere. It is the soil shell that determines many processes which take place in the biosphere. The most important function of soil is to accumulate the organic matter, various chemical elements, and energy. The soil cover serves as a biological absorber, destroyer and neutralizer of various types of pollution. The soil has a crucial role in the life of society, as it is a source of food, providing 95–97% of food supplies for the whole population of the world. If this part of the biosphere is destroyed, the functioning of the biosphere will be irreversibly disrupted. It is extremely important to study the global biochemical value of soil cover, its current state and changes in the cadastral evaluation of land taking into account the influence of anthropogenic activities. Effective protection of the environment from hazardous chemicals is impossible without regard to some reliable information about the degree of soil pollution.