In conditions of increasing anthropogenic influence it is essential to monitor the state of land continuously and to develop some effective measures for the rational use of land. To study the state of the land the analysis of land use structure, objectively reflecting the current state of industrial, agricultural and other impacts on the land, has been carried out. The assessment of ecological and economic condition of the Astrakhan region lands characterized by different degree of anthropogenic load has been performed. Based on that, the coefficients of relative and absolute tension of the territory are calculated. The coefficient of anthropogenic intensity and the coefficient of natural protection of land have been found and analyzed the forecast for changes in the ecological and economic condition has been made. The degree of tilled soil for every administrative district has been calculated. On the basis of the results obtained, specific maps have been created. Those maps reflect indicators of the coefficient of relative anthropogenic intensity of the Astrakhan region lands, indicators of the coefficient of natural protection of the Astrakhan region lands, indicators of the coefficient of anthropogenic load of the Astrakhan region and indicators of the degree of ploughing of the Astrakhan region lands. Spatial analysis has revealed significant transformation of landscapes as a result of high anthropogenic load in majority of locations of the studied area. The areas with the highest and lowest intensity of ecological and economic condition of lands are allocated.