This article presents monitoring and rational use of agricultural lands in the Krasnodar Territory over the past decade. The analysis of degradation processes of agricultural lands is carried out. The authors made the assessment of the processes occurring on agricultural land in the Krasnodar Territory with their intensive use. The authors suggested a set of measures to improve land productivity; to strengthen control by the public authorities over the use, protection and improvement of land and the efficient use of capital investments. It is noted that when developing a set of measures for preventing and eliminating negative processes of the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on land resources, it is necessary to take into account the indicators of increasing the efficiency of land use in southern Russia, as well as the natural, geological and socio-economic characteristics of the region.