1 Tolchelnikova S.A.

Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of RAS

The contradictions between continuous values used in mathematics, and discrete ones obtained from measurements, were already known in Ancient Greece (aporia of Zeno). Astronomy and geodesy are known as exact sciences because a special care is taken for studying the errors of measurements and using mathematical formula for determinations the errors of observed values derived from them. If the distances are expressed in light travel time, then the errors due to the existence of medium, should be taken into account. In microworld with the high speed of particles motion intervals of time and distance are difficult to distinguish from “instances” and “points”. In megaworld when proper motions of sources become zero the instances (moments) might last for hundreds of years and still more in the case of galaxies. Measurable distances end with zero parallaxes, then hypotheses are used in astrophysics; some of them may have confirmation in future observations. The hypothesis that red shift of galaxies testifies their fly away due to the Universe expansion could not be considered as a fact of observations, besides it contradicts to astrophysical practice. It originates from Einstein’s equation of the Universe and led to the hypothesis of Big Bang which results in ascribing absurd qualities to multidimensional space (or space-time) principally not measurable.
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Tolchelnikova S.A., 
(2015) Distances and time: mathematical, measurable and expressed in light travel time. Geodesy and cartography = Geodezia i Kartografia, (9), pp. 8–16. (In Russian). DOI: 10.22389/0016-7126-2015-903-9-8-16
Publication History
Received: 21.05.2015
Accepted: 06.08.2015
Published: 12.10.2015


2015 September DOI: